Anthropology Paper 1 is more about concept part while Paper 2 is more of application part. The highest in this paper has touched 170s. So there is again greater scope for marks maximizing.
- Anthropology notes ( My friends notes + Self ) made from referring sources like Brain tree + IGNOU +Vaid material + internet + physical anthropology by P Nath
- Physical anthropology – P Nath
- Theories – Class notes of Vajiram anthropology sir ( 2 years back he taught at Vajiram and Ravi)
- Anthropology previous years solved paper
- Anthropology is a humanities subject. So while presenting answer mix it with case studies, bullet points, paragraphs, some flow charts, some diagrams, conclusions.
- Maintain proper structure. You should impress the examiner. Since it is humanities visibility might also play an important role.
- Some tips for improving marks
- Start with small introduction or definition for the question. Small 2-3 lines should do.
- Then I would suggest you to mention the related thinkers name and their work in the next part of answer and underline them.
- Then use mix of paragraph and bullets for answer writing. Sub-headings will add look and presentation.
- Case studies and examples are a must. You can even put side heading as case study 1. Even if you don’t know any case study, create an example and write it as example.
- Then flow charts and diagrams would help. Even you think this is laborious but actually mark gaining strategy. Like you can draw tools, where each tribe is found, which fossil is found where
- Then mention what is contemporary relevance. Even if u don’t know anything write generic one. It gives the examiner a feel that the student is applying what ever he has studied. A positive feel
- Then conclude with simple one or decent one.
- Since this paper is more static, there is again little scope for examiners creativity and innovation. So they will give mostly same question in same form or slight modification. So prepare all previous papers perfectly.
- The exam is more mugging up and delivering. So do this part thoroughly. As well, anthropology has scope for creativity, this gives scope for our innovation. This should enhance marks and separate from normal person.
- I would suggest prepare a simple structure for every answer during preparation and write it in the notes. Only by seeing that you should be able remember the answer.
- Revise revise revise + practice practice practice is only mantra here.
Chapter wise plan and approach
1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
- Straight question mostly for 10 or 15 marks.
- Prepare answer with side headings like – Introduction – Anthropology definition by different thinkers (Malinowski etc.)- Branches of anthropology – different approaches- how anthropology helps us- conclusion
- Just try to present anthropology holistically
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
- Prepare the question where do you situate anthropology in social sciences? Start with basic introduction of what is anthropology, then present views of Radcliff Brown as natural science, then Kroeber and Evan Pritchard view of it a social science. End with saying that it is between both as Malinowski said. Finish with some decent conclusion
- Prepare basic content with anthropology and social science – History, sociology, political science and economics
- For anthropology and behavioural sciences- psychology
- For anthropology and life sciences – zoology, biology, anatomy and physiology, genetics
- For anthropology and earth sciences – geology and human geography
- For anthropology and medical sciences-
- While writing the relationship try to include – similarities, differences- and how each helps each other etc..
- Prepare basic about these chapters, for about 10 marks.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
- Social- cultural Anthropology.
- Biological Anthropology.
- Archaeological Anthropology.
- Linguistic Anthropology.
- Question is a must from this chapter every year. Prepare for each topic for 15 marks. This is just like mugging up answer and delivering there. The examiner cannot create and innovate new questions. So prepare well.
- For socio cultural anthropology you can write in this sub headings ; Introduction- what is socio cultural anthropology- branches of it- where do you situate in social sciences- ethnography- scope – contemporary relevance
- For biological anthropology, subheading can be like; introduction about anthropology- biological anthropology- branches of it- new biological anthropology – contemporary relevance- conclusion.
- For archaeological anthropology; introduction- archaeological anthropology- examples of how it helps- new/ ethno archaeology – branches of it- contemporary relevance- conclusion
- For linguistic anthropology: introduction- linguistic anthropology ( EB Tylor Mexican tribes, features) – Branches- contemporary significance –conclusion.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
- Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution. Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
- Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
- I prepared this from Braintree directly. Made short side headings and in a presentable way.
- Prepare standard notes for each topic. Keeping it simple is best here.
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
- Didn’t prepare for entire chapter. Just prepare few topics form where questions repeat. Other parts you can skip.
- Comparative anatomy of man and apes: practice it through figures and diagrams. Then put it under different side-headings like skull, limbs, etc.. and write single point of why that change happened.
- Skeletal changes due to erect posture: again put sub- headings like back bone, limbs, knees etc. use figures
- Questions come from these 2 topics every alternate year. Prepare for 20 marks. Whenever you see these questions from physical anthropology, attempt them. The marks scoring part. Examiner cannot reduce marks like in social anthropology part.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
- Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
- Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
- Rhodesian man.
- Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
- Prepare 10 marks for each thing. Your answer should include – introduction- draw a map showing where they located, like Europe map, Africa map and point out their location- their features- their phylogenetic status- any other information
- You can refer directly from P Nath or some part in Brain tree ( whichever is comfortable to you)
- Write these questions when you see it- physical part has more scope for marks and less marks cutting.
- See also the previous questions and what they are asking. Simple and straight questions. Just practice and practice
1.7 The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
- Simple part – not more than 10 marks. Write in simple terms no need of high technical words. Nothing special plan here.
1.8 Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
- Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
- Copper-Bronze Age
- Iron Age
- I didn’t prepare this. You can skip this part. Questions cannot come from here. Even if they come you can attempt them generally
2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.
- For culture question: introduction – then include what different thinkers have told for culture like EB Tylor, Krober, Malinowski etc- Features of culture – contemporary conclusion
- Prepare for culture and civilizations similarities and differences. Can conclude with recent example like mining is building new civilisation but killing tribal culture. Etc…
- Ethnocentrism has a long debate and good case studies. Prepare for them and contemporary relevance. I suggest you to attempt this question as a last option. There is lot of subjectivity to this part. So better skip this.
2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.
- For society answer: include two schools of thought US and British, books of EB Tylor and LH Morgan.
- For social institutions and social groups prepare for 10 marks not more than that
- Status and role question for 10 marks is often asked.
- If you can get material for social stratification, prepare for 15 marks. You must mention Sarokin definition here.
- Apart from this this chapter is straight forward simple one.
2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
- There is a question mostly from this part. The task is to present with many examples of tribes which follow which type of marriage.
- Any book should be fine. ( I checked with Brain tree)
- For more marks in answers you should use diagrams of marriage etc…
2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
- Again any book is fine. Use diagrams and examples. Then only you get marks
- Whether family is universal or not? Often asked question. This should include Murdocks definition of family- some case study ( Kibbutz or Nayars)- then you should conclude with saying family performs basic functions so is universal.
- Functions of family is simple one. Structure it under sub headings as essential and non- essential
- Impact of urbanization and all- prepare with examples and some structure could add marks
- These are again simple topics, attempt here you can score more marks
2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
- When you attempt kinship questions, try to include- What functions kinship serves, what is kinship, types, definition of Godlier, and contemporary relevance of it.
- Tree diagrams and examples for different types of kinships will give marks. Not just writing. Examples are must and must.
- Prepare 10 marks answer for lineage, clan, moiety etc..
- Kinship terminology question is important. You must include LH Morgan and his book- classification with examples ( Iroquois and Sudanese etc…)- differences between two types- any Indian kinship studies- criticism of this by kroebber and Malinowski- contemporary relevance and conclusion ( helped in understanding evolution and status of family)
- Scoring part. Attempt straight questions from here
- Economic organization:Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
- Prepare a basic definition of what is economic anthropology
- Formalist vs substantivist debate is not just writing difference between two, but it should include at least: Introduction of how it started ( Malinowski – kula ring), What is economic anthropology, scope of economic anthropology, time line of debate ( how it started, some thinkers views), what I debate ( here mention about two features) , include ideas of Dalton, Platter, Feminists, Indian context and some decent conclusion.
- Prepare for 10/15 marks on each topic like pastoral economy, hunting fishing, food gathering, agriculture. Your answer structure should have: introduction of what is it, examples of tribes and where it is found, characteristics of economy (population, technology, labour division, land ownership, capital etc..) , how are they administered, and conclude by what is the current status of them. A direct question from these topics is always on cards. No creativity needed, just delivering the standard answer is crux.
- Prepare decent content for Kula ring, potlach with some diagrams/ maps etc..
- Some content of what is distribution etc. prepare some Indian tribes and their re distribution map
- If you have good examples you can write globalization and impacts. With-out specific tribal examples it is useless. If you don’t have I suggest you to not attempt this question.
- Political organization and Social Control:Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
- Prepare content on what is political anthropology (basic content) with views and works of Meyer fortes and Evan Pritchard. Prepare a tabulated difference between centralized political system vs un-centralized political system
- Prepare brief about band organization- what is it, who follows this, what are features, limitations of this, current status of these tribes
- For tribal organization – what is it, who follows this, 3 types of tribal organizations and examples with description ( village based, Ibo and Yako+ age set organization, Masai and Nandi+ segmentary lineage system, Tiv of Nigeria), what is present status, advantages and limitations.
- Like-wise prepare for chiefdom and state societies.
- Social control in simple societies is an important part- you should mention how it is there in simple societies with examples and how it evolved. Your examples must contain: the Kamba of kenya and king ole custom, Spanish abuse custom, witch craft in Nyakuse of Tanzania, ritual sanctions, bloof feud in Africa etc. you can get these examples in Brain tree and Vaid.
- Prepare about the difference between custom and law. Simple answer.
- This chapter doesn’t have any dynamic part so simple questions will be asked. If you can conclude your answer with some good conclusion and some present significance or something…
- Religion:Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
- Important chapter, more number of questions. Firstly approaches to religion you should mention at least 2 thinkers for each approach.
- Evolutionary approach – EBTylor, Frazer and their books
- Psychological approach- R R Marret and S Freud
- Functional approach – Malinowski and Emile Durkheim.
- For every question on religion, start with definition of either Durkheim or Malinowski.
- You can skip monotheism and polytheism. Nobody will ask. Or else do basic reading.
- Sacred and profane answer should have: definition of religion, Emile Durkheim work on Arunta tribes and his book, then difference between both sacred and profane, some characteristics, you should finish with some present link- like how we even regard some objects as sacred etc..
- For myth and rituals you can have: definition, Levi strauss idea of myth, structure of myth, characteristics of it, functions of myth and some concluding remarks. For rituals you should have characteristics. How each evolved from other (relation)
- Forms of religion will be asked not more than 10 marks, just prepare 150 word content with introduction + some thinker and views + what is that + characteristics + concluding with current link
- Tottemism answer should have Emile Durkheim and his study ( this is a must, otherwise you will not get marks)
- Difference between magic and religion is standard question. But introduce with James Frazer and his work on Magic etc..
- Religious functionaries will not be more than 10 marks.
- You can use Braintree and Vaid here.
- Anthropological theories:
- Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
- Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
- Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
- Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
- Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
- Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
- Cultural materialism (Harris)
- Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
- Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
- Post- modernism in anthropology
- Every theory should have thinker and his work. Prepare more on case studies + examples and also criticism.
- Can use some flow charts etc… to make interesting.
- Plan for some conclusions like – for evolution theorists: though there are some criticism for classical evolution, this was one of the early concepts which helped to develop anthropology into organized discipline and laid base for further anthropological thought and research.
- Like-wise do it for other theories as well. Proper introduction will be catchy.
- Levi strauss structuralism, you attempt only as last option. No-body really understood what levi strauss told. I don’t think even he could understand this.
- Differences between
- Evolution and diffusion
- Functionalism and structuralism/ structural functionalism
- Culture personality school thinkers
- Neo evolution and classical evolution and also among them selves
- Clifford Geertz and Victor Turner in symbolic theories
- You can skip cognitive theories if you feel it is tough.
- To score marks here you can use this template: Introduction – thinker – his books – where he did his work – case studies (through flow charts) – criticism – how it helped anthropology- conclusion.
- Culture, language and communication:Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
- Smallest chapter in paper 1. You only prepare for social context of language- how language and society + culture are inter-related. Theories like Sapir whorf Hypothesis, how language plays in different cultures like males and females use different words for same thing in Japan, Russian colour code system etc. give more examples here
- For non-verbal communication- write standard stuff given in Brain tree as tree diagram and then also mention things like how OK sign is perceived in different places, how pointing at head is understood at different places, idea of physical space, the concept of last man entering in Saudi etc.. as sign of non-verbal communication.
- Research methods in anthropology:
- Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
- Distinction between technique, method and methodology
- Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
- Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
- While writing about field work tradition, you should start with how it started, who started, what are major field works, advantages, its limitations, Indian field work tradition, you can conclude by how it helps present context. Like I concluded like this- field work has grown importance as we plan to make New India, and bring every one into development plan… something in these lines
- Technique – method and methodology you will have small content but cover it with some diagrams etc..
- Each year one tool of data collection appears in exam. So prepare 10 mark content for all. You can include any cases where they helped, like genealogical method in Todas by WH Rivers etc..
- You can have some conclusions like this- with growing service sector, the importance of questionnaires etc. have grown as they try to understand the customer’s needs….
- Simple chapter- again focus more on delivery and presentation.
9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
- You can refer P Nath or Brain tree. This is marks scoring topic. Prepare answer through side headings, genealogical tables and examples. Keep it simple for every answer. Try to cover all aspects of question.
- Present some examples of what the methods can offer now.
- For biochemical methods, cryptogenetic methods, and immunological methods, if you can do it okay. Otherwise have a glance over them no need for rigorous reading
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
- Mendel’s four laws prepare for 15 marks total. You can use example of pea plant or coloured cow.
- Application of mendalian genetics is given well in P Nath page no 62.
- For single factor – ABO Blood group, Tall dwarf pea plant etc.
- For multi factor- page no 68 in P Nath
- Lethal gene good content from P Nath page no 70
- This chapter is purely marks scoring. Examiner cannot create new questions. Follow P Nath and practice regularly
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
- Prepare a 10 mark answer for each factor. If possible please see how this will be put as flow chart for getting better marks
- P Nath has good content. Structure well. You can add some examples.
- Most topics in this can be read from P Nath or else Brain Tree
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
- Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
- Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
- Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
- Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
- Question is a must from this part. Most of this can be answered form P Nath. Keep it simple and prepare for 10 marks covering all parts
- While writing this part try to write under headings as- introduction, what is that, causes, clinical features, frequency of occurrence, how to diagnosis, any methods to remove that disease and other info if any.
- Part 4 in this chapter depends on your capability. If you can read its ok, otherwise can skip. It’s a bit boring part. Anyhow prepare for 10 marks only. Don’t spend reading more about them
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
- What is race? Race vs racism? 10 marks
- Basis for racial classification. You can prepare for 20 marks about how morphological traits vary in different racial groups- like skin colour, hair, body build, cephalic index, nasal index etc.. and also how genetic traits vary like ABO system, MNS System, Serum Protein among different groups.
- How racial criteria varies in relation to heredity and environment. ( you can talk about skin colour, blood groups, nose, length of hands, hair texture etc..
- Short notes on race crossing is better
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
- I read from Brain Tree basic reading. No need to slog here. Basic stuff prepare well. I don’t think questions comes regularily
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
- In the definition of ecological anthropology you should mention Julian Steward Shonshone expedition in west US. How he found that ecology place a role in division of labour and culture.
- Then for standard adaptation you can refer P Nath
- Prepare also for cultural and biological adaptation, acclimatization to high altitude, cold and hot desert. Question comes for 15 or 20 marks. It’s a simple question.
- Don read anything else from this chapter except above mentioned one.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
- Just understand what is epidemiological anthropology, different approaches like ecological, interpretive, critical medical approach, then why it is gaining popularity, and conclusion.
- Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth – pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
- Prepare short note on these topics, generally questions doesn’t come, but be prepared.
- Brain tree material is sufficient.
- Now a days UPSC is asking questions from theories also, smaller issues are also asked. So suggest you to read completely for this chapter from Brain Tree.
- You can use some figures, diagrams etc.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
- General answers, but try to include how socio cultural factors play an important role in determining the these things.
- Nothing great with this thing. But while finishing link with current topics. Like with use of medicines and changing life patters menarche age is getting low etc.. more effects of depression etc..
11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.
- Read from Brain Tree or any other material. Simple. Don’t complicate this topic.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
- Standard factors but try to present under different sub headings like biological, cultural, ecological, economic etc.. will give you marks
- You can innovate through the use of flow charts, some line diagrams etc.
- Applications of Anthropology:Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
- I read this entirely from P Nath. In P Nath it is given as paragraph, you can put that in point form or bullets or some picture for better representation.
- You can conclude with innovative linkages like. Say with the MAKE IN INDIA programme greater scope for anthropological works in designing defence equipment arises.
- Or with growing service sector development of people friendly office spaces is gaining momentum
- Or with development of start up sector, anthropology can be fertile ground for new entrepreneurs etc…
ALL THE BEST ….